On today’s podcast, Behavioral Specialist Sean Hanrahan stops by to talk to us about managing students and children in the home with behavioral issues, the importance of expectation and consistency, and how these methods are vital to the practice of Social Immersion.
Sean is a certified teacher of TCI, therapeutic crisis intervention, and teaches and certifies teachers. He is also one of founders of Oakstone Academy, the school that developed and practices successful Social Immersion.
Sean will be speaking at the Oakstone Institute this fall which you can find out more about at oakstoneacademy.org
Oakstone’s initial goals was to not just create a school but methods and tools for any parent or teacher to use. Parents from the Palm Beach area approached Dr. Rebecca Morrison, the school’s founder, about creating their own Social Immersion school in their community.
On our 5th and 6th episodes we will be playing an interview we did a few months back with staff and student leaders from the Oakstone Academy at Palm Beach.
Immersing students with autism spectrum disorder means having inclusive extracurricular opportunities.
“All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts,”
-from As You Like It by WIlliam Shakespeare
When William Shakespeare wrote these words, he was commenting on the roles we play in our daily lives and the drama that surrounds us. For students with Autism Spectrum Disorder, theatre, whether on stage or behind the scenes, can be a powerful tool for membership in a community. Participating in a play not only develops a sense of confidence, competence, and self worth, but also can help students with ASD to feel that they belong and even can improve their interpersonal skills beyond the stage. Success comes from developing competence and earning a place in the group.
Kara Zimmerman, a professional actor, currently teaches theatre and music at Oakstone Academy in the school’s Academic and Social Immersion Model. She was intrigued to have students of all abilities try out for theatre, as she was aware of many studies that show how well students with ASD do in the arts. However, she commented that it “blows my mind to see kids going far beyond what they are supposed to do”. Kara runs the theater program at Oakstone just as the rest of the school is run. Students with ASD are considered full members of the community and try out for theatre with their classmates, earning their roles. She does not cast per diagnosis, but by role, choosing the student who is best suited for the part. “Diagnosis doesn’t matter,” Kara commented, “I forget we are in an immersion setting because all the kids are just there to put on a great show.” As she has been more involved with casting and directing shows at Oakstone over the past few years, Kara has seen the benefits of theatre for her students with ASD. “Theatre fosters support and understanding. It teachers about emotion and empathy….it really helps connect the dots between emotions and actions.” Kara also commented that she sees her cast and crew without diagnoses benefit as well, as the team approach and supportive environment of theatre really reinforce the role of peer models and the idea that everyone is learning from one another.
Grant Carpenter oversees the backstage and technical crew of the Oakstone theatre department. As a lifelong theatre participant, Grant enjoys facilitating the camaraderie of theatre. “Theatre requires teamwork from every single person,” Grant added, “Any part can–and does–make a scene.” This message is reiterated in how he runs crew, focusing on each individual’s ability to help in a particular area as they prepare a vision for the staging of the show. “Some students are going to be better with detail work, while others are really fast and efficient spreading paint. We need people to work on the backdrop, the props, the costumes, the tech. All those abilities are needed as we work towards one cohesive presentation.”
Both Kara and Grant commented about the idea of watching students exceed expectations that society sets for them because of their diagnosis. “Parents will tell me,” Kara shared, “about being told their child will never talk or never have friends. Then, you see them on stage and it blows my mind to watch them going beyond what they were supposed to do.” Grant is constantly amazed to see kids “who don’t talk much outside of theatre get up on stage and drop an awesome monologue.” Kara may have said it best, when reflecting about the impact theatre has on her students: “I cry every time we do a show. Every time.”
Several members of the recent middle school play at Oakstone and their parents also talked about the impact that being a part of the theatre had on them. Because all three students have ASD, they will be referred to by pseudonyms: Alex, Betsy, and Diane. Alex and Betsy both had roles onstage, while Diane was a second year member of the crew.
Alex shared that he opted to do theatre to be with his friends. “I felt excited because I got to be with my friends. It feels good to go to school and be in plays and have friends.” He commented, “people with autism should try doing plays, so they aren’t left out.” Betsy also felt students with ASD should participate in plays, commenting, “Even if you can’t talk, you can act it out. You can be in the group.” Both actors and Diane enjoyed being part of a group or team. Diane added, “I know a lot more students now. It helps give me social practice to be in theatr.e It also makes school more fun and positive. Theatre is the most fun thing I’ve joined.” The idea of being a member of a group and working towards a common goal is crucial for students with ASD, and theatre gives them first hand experience with that.
Alex commented that he “didn’t feel nervous because I was prepared. Sometimes people get stage fright. I didn’t but some people did. I was kind to people who were nervous.” Alex had the opportunity to coach and support his peers, both with and without ASD, allowing him to be a leader. Betsy, on the other hand, did feel a little nervous about remembering her lines, but was reassured by Kara’s direction. “Acting is reacting, that’s what Ms. Kara told us,” Betsy commented. “That means just pay attention and try your best.” Diane is not as interested in being on stage, but plans on continuing theatre in high school as well. “I like crew, not being seen, hiding, but having fun. It is better for my insecurities, but I still am participating in something.” Diane felt like participating in crew made some of her social anxiety less noticeable, as she was working with a team of students, with and without ASD, who all prefer to be behind the scenes. “Crew is still a lot of fun and you all help each other. We joke around and even taught some kids about making jokes so they could laugh along with us.”
Diane’s mother has seen her self-worth grow since she began participating in theatre. “She finds real pride in being in crew. It builds on her interest in the arts, uses her talent. She is always excited to show me her work.” She has also seen Diane come out of her shell and be more willing to take risks related to social activities and feel the payoff. “Theatre is a place that she feels she fits in. (Diane) is excited to show others that crew is not a consolation prize; it’s just as fulfilling as being on stage.” Alex’s mom has also seen theatre as a vehicle to help Alex build his confidence. “Theatre gives him full membership in the group, not charity inclusion. He earned it.” For Alex, theatre is a place to put his phenomenal memory to use, and a place to allow others to see his personality and humor, which his mom feels he keeps hidden 95% of the time. “His past teachers saw him at the show and were wowed that he was so funny and brave onstage.” She elaborated, “This is a kid who at age 3 had maybe 10 words he spoke. At age 9, he whisper-talked in every class. Now, he is on stage, projecting, being funny!”
The most rewarding part of offering immersive experiences in theatre is seeing the ways it impacts students’ confidence and skills in other areas. Parents and staff alike see this happen time and again among students with ASD who participate in theatre. “Theatre was a spark for (Alex). He wants to go see the high school play now. He is doing more social planning–asking kids if they are participating in other activities and clubs. He is leaving our family in social situations to go be silly with friends. He makes friends outside of his classroom social group. He makes comments about what others are doing and wanting to do those things too–benefitting from positive peer pressure.” Betsy made the connection between studying her lines and studying her school work: “Learning lines makes you feel better at knowing what to do. It’s the same as studying for class.” Diane added, “theatre keeps you flexible. Things will go wrong along the way. You have to go with it, not lose it.”
In Academic and Social Immersion, participating in extracurriculars has power because participation is earned. No one is there as a mascot or to meet a quota. No one is there with an adult helper or aide. Everyone who participates is there because they have promise and potential. All students are expected to participate, to carry their weight, and ultimately to play their part.
With an emphasis on the benefits of inclusion and social immersion, parents and educators of students with autism are seeking effective ways for their children to continue skill acquisition and enhancement, while also exposing their children to typically developing peers. But what does one do if a child who has access to an immersion environment doesn’t know how to play?
For most children, play is a naturally occurring phenomena that promotes their engagement and learning, independent performance, and social inclusion. Children who are unable to participate in play experiences are at risk for future deficits and have greater difficulty adjusting to preschool environments where individual instruction is limited. For children with autism, absent or restricted play skills might prevent opportunities for learning and successful participation in inclusive, general education classrooms. Play Pics is a teaching tool to help students with autism spectrum disorder learn various basic play actions, expand their play repertoire, learn to self-monitor and recall play skills practiced, to improve initiation, play choice selection, and play variability.
Play Pics uses a research based strategy formulated from Dr. Rebecca Morrison et al’s study, “Increasing Play Skills of Child With Autism Using Activity Schedules and Correspondence Training.” (For full citation, see our PUBLICATIONS tab.) In this study, it was found that children with autism spectrum disorders benefit greatly from using picture schedules and visuals to promote independent performance and positive behavior changes when playing with toys. Play Pics will help children develop play skills, make play choices, access more play areas in a classroom setting, increase their independent performance during playtime, and promote peer engagement. Play Pics also incorporates a self-monitoring card which promotes communication and language skills connected to play.
Play Pics are currently available for 5 common preschool toys: baby doll, ball, blocks, bus, and rocket. This dynamic and engaging strategy has been field tested, both in immersion preschool classrooms and at home. Our teachers and therapists find Play Pics to be a valuable tool to teach play skills. Our parents are experiencing success as well. Check out what a few parents have said about Play Pics:
“My son loves Play Pics [with a Ball]! He has even started using the skills with his cousins and kids in our community!”
“I am so grateful for Play Pics [with a Bus]! Thank you guys for giving that to me to use with my son. I have seen it help in many areas. He cleans up better now and follows directions more.”
Many of you familiar with the world of education or behavior management have heard the phrase “catch them being good” in some form or another. The philosophy behind this is simple. If you have behaviors, attitudes, or actions that you want to see more of in class, you identify and positively acknowledge them as you see them happening naturally in the daily life in your classroom. Research in Applied Behavior Analysis shows us that receiving positive reinforcement is the fastest way to promote and increase positive behavior. Receiving that reinforcement from a teacher will cement the skill in a student and encourage others to follow suit.
One of the strengths of the immersion program is the abundance of natural models of academic and social behaviors and skills available for students on the autism spectrum. In our immersion classrooms we often prompt students who ask for help with the phrase “Look at your friends” or with a gesture to their classmates. We may also choose to redirect 1-2 students who are off task by starting to praise or reward those who are on task. Students not receiving any type of reinforcement often will stop and look to see WHY their classmates are being singled out and then adjust their behavior to receive the same reinforcement.
Here are some tips for catching students being good in an immersion classroom
Be specific in your reinforcement. Do not simply tell some students “Good job”. In an immersion classroom, you want to make it clear what is being rewarded or reinforced. Phrases like “good looking-eyes” with younger students or “thank you for having your homework ready” with older students serves not only to reward one group, but to remind the students who are still working towards the goal about your expectation or direction.
Vary your students receiving reinforcement. If you are always praising the same student, other members of the class or group may believe that the PERSON and not the BEHAVIOR is what is being recognized.
Vary how many students you acknowledge. Ideally, you will want to reinforce the first few students to get everyone else moving towards compliance with the expectation or direction. You will not always be able to acknowledge every student who eventually shows the correct behavior, but you do want to make sure that your students who have a long road to go occasionally are being rewarded as well. Remember positive reinforcement builds positive skills, so make sure you are reinforcing those who are still developing the skills!
Use proximity. If you have one student in particular who is still developing a skill or behavior, praise and reinforce the students physically nearest that student who is still learning. That draws their attention more quickly.
Mix up your reinforcement. The preferred form reinforcement would be verbal praise or a positive gesture, as it is more natural. It is also easier to give, as you always have your smile and voice with you. That being said, don’t discount the power of the occasional sticker, stamp, or even a single M&M, Skittle, or cracker. In my experience, even high school students occasionally like a treat or sticker.
Do not engage with students who want to talk about your reinforcement. Many of our students on the autism spectrum love to argue, look for loopholes, and rationalize things. Don’t allow students to engage you in a debate of your reinforcement choices. Simply reply with something like “I was looking for a couple of people who had their work ready. Now we are moving on. Maybe next time.” This reinforces the direction you were giving, the behavior you wanted to see, and the end of the conversation.
Reward good character, not just good academic behavior. Remember teaching good character is the goal of any behavior system. We don’t just want kids to comply with rules, but demonstrate kindness, respect, trustworthiness, and responsibility. Pairing character words with your compliment helps students understand the meaning of these bigger ideas. If you see a student struggling to remain calm in a stressful situation, you can comment, “Nice keeping your hands to yourself” to prompt and reinforce their progress. IF you see a student helping someone else, you can comment what a great citizen that student is being.
Catching kids being good benefits adults as well. It feels better to have positive interactions with students. It is more pleasant to compliment, smile, and reward than to reprimand, punish, or take privileges. As someone who works with children who are still learning and developing, it is a joy to be their cheerleader and booster!
Complimenting children on any aspect of play with you, work they are doing, or interactions they engage in should be employed quite a bit. It is easy to fall into playing or doing various other activities with children and forgetting to talk. But at school, we should constantly find ways to give the children positive attention and compliments. Even engaging in some activities is in itself a reason for complimenting the child. These nice, positive interactions with adults are very important to our little learners as well as our oldest students. They sense we are happy. They feel pride in their abilities. They know what is rewarded and what to strive for. Overall, it engages the children in interactions where they get to feel good just by being there and that more than anything else promotes good behavior.