It’s the most wonderful time of the year…classroom set up time, that is!
We asked long time Oakstone Academy kindergarten teacher, Courtney Soraghan, how she sets up her immersion classroom for success. Keep reading to see some of her tips. You can also check out this video to see it all in action- Courtney and co-teacher, Samantha Senalik, will walk you through setting up your classroom for success. It was recorded before COVID restrictions were in place, but with a little creativity, you should be able to make all of the tips fit the new in-person restrictions that are in place. Keep reading to find out how to set up your immersion classroom for success!
We use A LOT of visuals in my classroom. In my opinion, one of the most important visuals we use is our daily classroom schedule. This is posted each day and when we forget to change it, there is ALWAYS a student who reminds us- either by asking us nicely or…not so nicely. My classroom schedule pairs the picture of the activity with words. In older classrooms, I’ve seen schedules posted with the time that they will have the activity. Most of my kids don’t yet know how to tell time, so we don’t do that. Just like adults, students like to know what they are going to be doing throughout the day, and when they get to go home.
Oftentimes I will have a student who needs an individual schedule to help them to get through the day. I often use an individual schedule for students who have difficulty transitioning appropriately between tasks. They could have trouble with transitioning for a variety of reasons- they did not complete the task, they are being asked to transition from a preferred task to a non-preferred, or they simply don’t want to move on. I have made sure that my individual schedule pieces are the same pictures that I use for my whole group schedule, so that there is not any confusion. Some students need an individual schedule that allows them to move completed tasks to the other side while others are fine with having their own schedule without moving parts once a task has been completed. I try to have my students who need individual schedules responsible for making their own schedule in the mornings. This doesn’t happen the first day or week, of course, but once they are used to having their own schedule, I find that my students like having the ownership of making their schedule. An individual schedule is also beneficial to those students who may leave the classroom for speech or OT, as this is not listed on the main classroom schedule.
I’ve also had students who need their individual schedule broken down within a task. One example is breaking down the hour-long math block. I’ve had students who struggle in math to the point that they become frustrated so providing them a schedule of the tasks they are responsible for in math gives them a clear beginning and end. An individual math schedule may look like this: Days of School, Kid Counter, Book, Circle Activity, Seatwork, All Done. Having the “All Done” visual signals to them that, yes, I do have to do my math, but I also know that it will not last forever. I’ve done the same thing when a child comes in upset from drop off. I will write out all the steps to our Morning Circle routine in checklist form and have the student be responsible for checking off items. In most occasions, having this checklist helps the student to focus on what we are doing instead of what they were originally upset about.
I also use visuals to break down academic tasks. One example is during math seatwork. I use a color card with some students who have trouble attending to task. I will circle the first couple of problems in blue, the next few in red, and the remaining in green. Students have a checklist with the same colors in the same order and check off when blue is done, when red is done, and when green is done. I have had a lot of success with this; so much so that sometimes a student will ask me for it when they know they are having a hard time.
The goal is to have all students find success with the main classroom schedule, but breaking the schedule down for them can be very helpful to our students.
Another way that I use visuals in my classroom for self-regulation is having rings throughout the classroom that have icons like quiet voice, raise your hand, wait, stand up, eyes on teacher. You can almost always find me with a visual ring attached to my belt loop. These visual rings have the same pictures for each action, so that no matter which ring is being used, students recognize and understand what their expectation is. At first, the visual is always paired with words, so I say the words while showing them the picture. After the student knows what the expectation on the picture is, I will only show the picture. This is less invasive to the student and the classroom as a whole. If I’m saying, “quiet voice” out loud to a student, that can be distracting for the rest of the students sitting near the noisy student.
I also use short social stories as visuals. I’ve had quite a few students who want to be called on first and every single time there is a question posed to the class. Oftentimes, if these students do not get called on first, they will act out in some kind of way (yelling, crying, throwing their body all over the floor, etc.) I have a little card, smaller than an index card that I use with students that lists out the directions for being called on (listen to teacher, raise hand, wait to be called on with a quiet voice). One step farther is a visual card that says “If the teacher does not call on me I will not yell. I will have a quiet voice.”
Another way that I help kids in my classroom with self-regulation is making sure everyone on my team is on the same page with regard to behavior expectations. If I am teaching, my co-teacher handles behavior the same way that I do. My students learn quickly that the consequence for an inappropriate behavior is the same every time. In most instances, if a student does something they aren’t supposed to, they are issued a warning. If they do it again, they go to the classroom sad spot. If they do it again, they move their clip accordingly. This is not to say that these steps are followed all the time. If a student has been in trouble for the same thing several times, they may go right to sad spot or they may go right to moving their clip. The main point is that everyone on my team knows the expectations for each student and holds them to it.
It is also important, especially for our students with autism, to establish routines. This can take up to a month at the beginning of the year, but it is well worth it. We practice the appropriate way to line up. If a student or two is not lining up appropriately, we all go back and try again. And we do that until we are all doing it correctly. It takes up a little bit of time at first, but saves a lot of time later. The same is true for appropriate hallway behavior. If we are having a hard time being appropriate in the hallway, then we all try again.
Seating placement is another way that I help set my students up for success. With my kindergarten classroom ratio usually being very close to 50% ASD: 50% peer models, I set up my seating chart so that not all of my friends on IEPs are at the same table. I first lay out name tags for my students with IEPs and then place my peer model students around accordingly. If I know I have an ASD student with limited language, I will place them by a peer student that I know talks a lot. If I have two students who I know can be explosive when upset by a challenging academic task, I will sit them at different tables. If I know I have two students who struggle in math, I will put them near each other so that the support staff in my classroom can sit with them together during math instruction. My seating arrangement changes a couple of times at the beginning of the year when I get to know everyone. Another resource I have always used are the teachers in the grade below. Once I have my seating arrangement made, I’ve asked them to come and take a peek and alert me to any possible conflicts they can see.
I work hard at the beginning of the year to make sure that my classroom centers are spread out in a functional way. I have my blocks and trucks area far from my library. When students are asked to quietly look at books right next to where other students are not so quietly playing blocks and trucks, you can imagine that those book readers and going to scoot right on over to play with their classmates. If I can eliminate some of that, I will. Students have clear boundaries of where they are supposed to be when they are supposed to be there. I have bookshelves with toys on them that face only one way and use those as dividers for different stations in the classroom.
A note about data collection: Everyone knows that data needs to be collected, but not everyone knows how to use it. There is little point to collecting data if you aren’t going to use it or analyze it. Setting up your data binder before school starts can be life-changing. It is hard to play catch up once the kids start school and you are inundated with behaviors from students having the summer off or having not ever been in school. Yes, you may need to change some things as you get to know the student, but reading through their FBAs and IEPs beforehand gives you a great start. I am almost always collecting data in my classroom. Yes, I have to collect data for IEP goals, but I also collect data for behavior and academics. This past year, I found that a student was having behavior every Wednesday. There weren’t really any other days during the week (except for a few outliers with clear antecedents) that this student was becoming as aggressive, peeing his pants on purpose, and screaming. Collecting data allowed me to see that. I was able to make the connection to his inappropriate behaviors with him missing the end of the day routine every Wednesday due to going to speech. This student is one who relied heavily on an individual schedule and missing that last part of the day was extremely troubling to him. This student was upset from the second he came in every Wednesday. I talked to his speech pathologist and we were able to change his speech time to Fridays at a time that he did not miss our end of day routine and his behaviors on Wednesdays stopped. Collecting AND analyzing data is an important step to helping students become successful in an immersion classroom.
These are just a few ways to help your students start the year off on the right foot! Let us know if these work for you and other ways that you have set up your space for success! Don’t forget to check out this video to see all of this in action!